Sugary Drinks and Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

 

sugary-drinks

American adults who drink one (or more) sugary drinks a day have a 27% greater increase in abdominal fat tissue compared with Americans who don’t, according to a new data analysis from the Framingham Heart Study in the journal Circulation.

Deposition of fat in this location is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, both of which produce adverse health consequences.

Although the exact biological mechanism is unknown, added sugars—especially fructose—may trigger insulin resistance and increase fat accumulation, which raises the risks for these serious consequences.

In this investigation, researchers enrolled 1,003 participants (mean age 45) from the Framingham Study’s Third Generation cohort and measured their quantity and quality of abdominal fat tissue at baseline and again 6 years later using C.A.T. scans. Subjects also reported their sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake on a food frequency questionnaire.

Over a 6-year follow-up period—and after adjusting for participants’ age, gender, physical activity, body mass index, and other factors—abdominal fat tissue volume increased by:

  • 658 cm3 for non-drinkers and occasional drinkers (once a month or less than once a week)
  • 707 cm3 for frequent drinkers (once a week or less than once a day)
  • 852 cm3 for those who drank at least 1 beverage daily

The researchers concluded that, although age alone accounts for increasing fat, drinking sugar-sweetened beverages led to a significantly greater increase in abdominal fat tissue. In contrast, they observed no such association with drinking diet soda. Needless to say, observation of general dietary guidelines is also required to minimize accumulation of excess fat.

As a result, the researchers urged all people to be mindful of how many sugar-sweetened beverages they drink. To policy makers, this study adds more evidence to the growing body of research suggesting sugar-sweetened beverages may be harmful to health, providing arguments for public efforts to restrict such consumption.

Sugar-sweetened beverages are the largest contributor of added sugar intake in the United States. In 2001 to 2004, the usual intake of added sugars for Americans was 22.2 teaspoons per day, or an extra 355 calories. The American Heart Association recommends a limit of 100 calories per day of added sugars for most women and 150 calories per day for most men.

This information simply adds more support to the idea that sugar, in itself, is a dangerous dietary component. I will disclose more about this in the next blog.

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UNDETECTED SUGAR MAY BE LURKING IN YOUR DIET BEYOND JUST SOFT DRINKS AND DONUTS

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   All research indicates that excess sugar in the diet is unhealthy, increasing one’s risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. For instance, a recent study disclosed that people who got 17 to 21 percent of their calories from added sugars had a 38% higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than those who kept their intake of sugar at or below 8%. Results of this type have prompted the American Heart Association to recommend that sugar intake be kept in this latter range, amounting to a daily intake in women of to more than 6 teaspoons (24 gms) daily, and in men, 9 teaspoons (36 gms).

But at this time, achieving these targets is challenging. For example a frozen stir-fry dinner can contain the same amount of sugar as 16 gummi bears (5 teaspoons). Or even whole-wheat bread can have almost a teaspoon of sugar per slice. As a matter of fact, food companies add sugar to almost three-quarters of all packaged products, including nutritious-sounding items such as instant oatmeal and peanut butter, or even into apparently “unsweetened” items such as tomato sauce and crackers.

Some Guidelines

 In general, the sugars found in dairy products and fruits such as sweet potatoes and beets come in small doses and are packaged with fiber, protein, vitamins, and minerals and they don’t affect one’s blood sugar greatly, and, when consumed in moderation, they are not of great concern.

The main challenge, however, is to try to avoid those unnecessary added sugars.  Usually nutrition facts on labels designate added and naturally occurring sugars together under “total sugars.”  But, unfortunately, the amount of undesirable added sugar is usually not clearly indicated. In the effort to ease this burden, the FDA has proposed that added sugars have their own line on food label, similar to the way total fat and saturated fat are listed separately. This should also include the percent contributing to the total daily limit. But until food labels change, we can make some suggestions: 1) Know the code words for sugar. Ingredients on the list that end in “ose”, i.e., fructose, maltose, and sucrose, are added sugars that should be minimized or avoided. Even healthier-sounding sugars such as brown rice syrup or honey aren’t any better than other types. 2) Scan the entire ingredients list. Since ingredients are usually listed in order of weight, the higher up a substance is, the more sugar it is likely to contain. But many manufacturers use more than one type of sugar in a product, allowing them to list them separately, leading to the false impression that a food possesses less sugar than it actually contains. 3) Compare nutrition labels.  Find the “plain” version of foods such as yogurt or oatmeal and compare the nutrition facts label against the same brand’s sweetened versions. The difference in the amount of sugar between the two products is almost always added sugar. So, instead of purchasing the “sweetened” version, opt for the plain version and, for sweetness, add fresh fruit.

For more information and a general lowdown on the best and worst natural sugars, the reader should consult the Consumer Reports website: ConsumerReports.org/naturalsugar2015.

 

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